encyclopedia.py 17 KB
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# Copyright 2018 Markus Scheidgen
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an"AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

'''
The encyclopedia API of the nomad@FAIRDI APIs.
'''
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import re
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import math
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from flask_restplus import Resource, abort, fields, marshal
from flask import request
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from elasticsearch_dsl import Search, Q, A
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from nomad import config
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from nomad.units import ureg
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from nomad.atomutils import get_hill_decomposition
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from .api import api
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ns = api.namespace('encyclopedia', description='Access encyclopedia metadata.')
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re_formula = re.compile(r"([A-Z][a-z]?)(\d*)")


def add_result(result, key, function, default=""):
    """Convenience function that attempts to add a value from the ElasticSearch
    result into the given result object. Upon failing returns the specified
    default value.
    """
    try:
        value = function()
    except Exception:
        value = default
    result[key] = value


def get_material(es_doc):
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    """Used to form a material definition for "materials/<material_id>" from
    the given ElasticSearch root document.
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    """
    result = {}
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    # General
    add_result(result, "material_id", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.material_id, None),
    add_result(result, "formula", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.formula, None)
    add_result(result, "formula_reduced", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.formula_reduced, None)
    add_result(result, "system_type", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.material_type, None)

    # Bulk only
    add_result(result, "has_free_wyckoff_parameters", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.bulk.has_free_wyckoff_parameters, None)
    add_result(result, "strukturbericht_designation", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.bulk.strukturbericht_designation, None)
    add_result(result, "material_name", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.material_name, None)
    add_result(result, "bravais_lattice", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.bulk.bravais_lattice, None),
    add_result(result, "crystal_system", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.bulk.crystal_system, None)
    add_result(result, "point_group", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.bulk.point_group, None)
    add_result(result, "space_group_number", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.bulk.space_group_number, None)
    add_result(result, "space_group_international_short_symbol", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.bulk.space_group_international_short_symbol, None)
    add_result(result, "structure_prototype", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.bulk.structure_prototype, None)
    add_result(result, "structure_type", lambda: es_doc.encyclopedia.material.bulk.structure_type, None)
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    return result


material_query = api.parser()
material_query.add_argument('material_id', type=str, help='Identifier for the searched material.', location='args')
material_result = api.model('material_result', {
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    # General
    "material_id": fields.String,
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    "formula": fields.String,
    "formula_reduced": fields.String,
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    "system_type": fields.String,
    # Bulk only
    "has_free_wyckoff_parameters": fields.String,
    "strukturbericht_designation": fields.String,
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    "material_name": fields.String,
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    "bravais_lattice": fields.String,
    "crystal_system": fields.String,
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    "point_group": fields.String,
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    "space_group_number": fields.Integer,
    "space_group_international_short_symbol": fields.String,
    "structure_prototype": fields.String,
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    "structure_type": fields.String,
})
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@ns.route('/materials/<string:material_id>')
class EncMaterialResource(Resource):
    @api.response(404, 'The material does not exist')
    @api.response(200, 'Metadata send', fields.Raw)
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    @api.doc('material/<material_id>')
    @api.expect(material_query)
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    @api.marshal_with(material_result, skip_none=True)
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    def get(self, material_id):
        """Used to retrive basic information related to the specified material.
        """
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        # Find the first public entry with this material id and take
        # information from there. In principle all other entries should have
        # the same information.
        s = Search(index=config.elastic.index_name)

        # Since we are looking for an exact match, we use filter context
        # together with term search for speed (instead of query context and
        # match search)
        query = Q(
            'bool',
            filter=[
                Q('term', published=True),
                Q('term', with_embargo=False),
                Q('term', encyclopedia__material__material_id=material_id),
            ]
        )
        s = s.query(query)
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        # The query is collapsed already on the ES side so we don't need to
        # transfer so much data.
        s = s.extra(**{
            "collapse": {"field": "encyclopedia.material.material_id"},
        })

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        response = s.execute()

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        # No such material
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        if len(response) == 0:
            abort(404, message='There is no material {}'.format(material_id))

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        # Create result JSON
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        entry = response[0]
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        result = get_material(entry)
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        return result, 200


range_query = api.model('range_query', {
    "max": fields.Float,
    "min": fields.Float,
})
materials_query = api.model('materials_input', {
    'search_by': fields.Nested(api.model('search_query', {
        "exclusive": fields.Boolean(default=False),
        "formula": fields.String,
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        "element": fields.String,
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        "page": fields.Integer(default=1),
        "per_page": fields.Integer(default=25),
        "pagination": fields.Boolean,
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        "mode": fields.String(default="collapse"),
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    })),
    'material_name': fields.List(fields.String),
    'structure_type': fields.List(fields.String),
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    'space_group_number': fields.List(fields.Integer),
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    'system_type': fields.List(fields.String),
    'crystal_system': fields.List(fields.String),
    'band_gap': fields.Nested(range_query, description="Band gap range in eV."),
    'band_gap_direct': fields.Boolean,
    'has_band_structure': fields.Boolean,
    'has_dos': fields.Boolean,
    'has_fermi_surface': fields.Boolean,
    'has_thermal_properties': fields.Boolean,
    'functional_type': fields.List(fields.String),
    'basis_set_type': fields.List(fields.String),
    'code_name': fields.List(fields.String),
    'mass_density': fields.Nested(range_query, description="Mass density range in kg / m ** 3."),
})
materials_result = api.model('materials_result', {
    'total_results': fields.Integer(allow_null=False),
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    'results': fields.List(fields.Nested(material_result)),
    'pages': fields.Nested(api.model("page_info", {
        "per_page": fields.Integer,
        "total": fields.Integer,
        "page": fields.Integer,
        "pages": fields.Integer,
    })),
    'es_query': fields.String(allow_null=False),
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})


@ns.route('/materials')
class EncMaterialsResource(Resource):
    @api.response(404, 'No materials found')
    @api.response(400, 'Bad request')
    @api.response(200, 'Metadata send', fields.Raw)
    @api.expect(materials_query, validate=False)
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    @api.marshal_with(materials_result, skip_none=True)
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    @api.doc('materials')
    def post(self):
        """Used to query a list of materials with the given search options.
        """
        # Get query parameters as json
        try:
            data = marshal(request.get_json(), materials_query)
        except Exception as e:
            abort(400, message=str(e))

        filters = []
        must_nots = []
        musts = []

        # Add term filters
        filters.append(Q('term', published=True))
        filters.append(Q('term', with_embargo=False))

        def add_terms_filter(source, target, query_type="terms"):
            if data[source]:
                filters.append(Q(query_type, **{target: data[source]}))

        add_terms_filter("material_name", "encyclopedia.material.material_name")
        add_terms_filter("structure_type", "encyclopedia.material.bulk.structure_type")
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        add_terms_filter("space_group_number", "encyclopedia.material.bulk.space_group_number")
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        add_terms_filter("system_type", "encyclopedia.material.material_type")
        add_terms_filter("crystal_system", "encyclopedia.material.bulk.crystal_system")
        add_terms_filter("band_gap_direct", "encyclopedia.properties.band_gap_direct", query_type="term")
        add_terms_filter("functional_type", "encyclopedia.method.functional_type")
        add_terms_filter("basis_set_type", "dft.basis_set")
        add_terms_filter("code_name", "dft.code_name")

        # Add exists filters
        def add_exists_filter(source, target):
            param = data[source]
            if param is not None:
                query = Q("exists", field=target)
                if param is True:
                    filters.append(query)
                elif param is False:
                    must_nots.append(query)

        add_exists_filter("has_thermal_properties", "encyclopedia.properties.thermodynamical_properties")
        add_exists_filter("has_band_structure", "encyclopedia.properties.electronic_band_structure")
        add_exists_filter("has_dos", "encyclopedia.properties.electronic_dos")
        add_exists_filter("has_fermi_surface", "encyclopedia.properties.fermi_surface")

        # Add range filters
        def add_range_filter(source, target, source_unit=None, target_unit=None):
            param = data[source]
            query_dict = {}
            if param["min"] is not None:
                if source_unit is None and target_unit is None:
                    gte = param["min"]
                else:
                    gte = (param["min"] * source_unit).to(target_unit).magnitude
                query_dict["gte"] = gte
            if param["max"] is not None:
                if source_unit is None and target_unit is None:
                    lte = param["max"]
                else:
                    lte = (param["max"] * source_unit).to(target_unit).magnitude
                query_dict["lte"] = lte
            if len(query_dict) != 0:
                query = Q("range", **{target: query_dict})
                filters.append(query)

        add_range_filter("band_gap", "encyclopedia.properties.band_gap", ureg.eV, ureg.J)
        add_range_filter("mass_density", "encyclopedia.properties.mass_density")
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        # Create query for elements or formula
        search_by = data["search_by"]
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        mode = search_by["mode"]
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        formula = search_by["formula"]
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        elements = search_by["element"]
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        exclusive = search_by["exclusive"]

        if formula is not None:
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            # Here we determine a list of atom types. The types may occur
            # multiple times and at multiple places.
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            element_list = []
            matches = re_formula.finditer(formula)
            for match in matches:
                groups = match.groups()
                symbol = groups[0]
                count = groups[1]
                if symbol != "":
                    if count == "":
                        element_list.append(symbol)
                    else:
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                        element_list += [symbol] * int(count)

            # The given list of species is reformatted with the Hill system
            # into a query string. The counts are reduced by the greatest
            # common divisor.
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            names, reduced_counts = get_hill_decomposition(element_list, reduced=True)
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            query_string = []
            for name, count in zip(names, reduced_counts):
                if count == 1:
                    query_string.append(name)
                else:
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                    query_string.append("{}{}".format(name, int(count)))
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            query_string = " ".join(query_string)
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            # With exclusive search we look for exact match
            if exclusive:
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                filters.append(Q("term", **{"encyclopedia.material.species_and_counts.keyword": query_string}))
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            # With non-exclusive search we look for match that includes at
            # least all parts of the formula, possibly even more.
            else:
                musts.append(Q(
                    "match",
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                    encyclopedia__material__species_and_counts={"query": query_string, "operator": "and"}
                ))
        elif elements is not None:
            # The given list of species is reformatted with the Hill system into a query string
            species, _ = get_hill_decomposition(elements.split(","))
            query_string = " ".join(species)

            # With exclusive search we look for exact match
            if exclusive:
                filters.append(Q("term", **{"encyclopedia.material.species.keyword": query_string}))
            # With non-exclusive search we look for match that includes at
            # least all species, possibly even more.
            else:
                musts.append(Q(
                    "match",
                    encyclopedia__material__species={"query": query_string, "operator": "and"}
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                ))

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        page = search_by["page"]
        per_page = search_by["per_page"]
        bool_query = Q(
            'bool',
            filter=filters,
            must_not=must_nots,
            must=musts,
        )
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        # 1: The paginated approach: No way to know the amount of matches,
        # but can return aggregation results in a quick fashion including
        # the number of matches entries per material.
        if mode == "aggregate":
            after = None
            # The loop is awkward, but emulates the old behaviour until the GUI is adapted.
            for _ in range(page):

                # The top query filters out entries based on the user query
                s = Search(index=config.elastic.index_name)
                s = s.query(bool_query)

                # The materials are grouped by using three aggregations:
                # 'Composite' to enable scrolling, 'Terms' to enable selecting by
                # material_id and "Top Hits" to fetch a single representative
                # material document.
                terms_agg = A("terms", field="encyclopedia.material.material_id")
                composite_kwargs = {"sources": {"materials": terms_agg}, "size": per_page}
                if after is not None:
                    composite_kwargs['after'] = after
                composite_agg = A("composite", **composite_kwargs)
                composite_agg.metric('representative', A('top_hits', size=1))
                s.aggs.bucket("materials", composite_agg)

                # We ignore the top level hits
                s = s.extra(**{
                    "size": 0,
                })

                response = s.execute()
                materials = response.aggs.materials.buckets
                if len(materials) == 0:
                    abort(404, message='No materials found for the given search criteria or pagination.')
                after = response.aggs.materials["after_key"]

            # Gather results from aggregations
            result_list = []
            materials = response.aggs.materials.buckets
            for material in materials:
                representative = material["representative"][0]
                mat_dict = get_material(representative)
                mat_dict["n_of_calculations"] = material.doc_count
                result_list.append(mat_dict)

            # Page information is incomplete for aggregations
            pages = {
                "page": page,
                "per_page": per_page,
            }
        # 2. Collapse approach. Quickly provides a list of materials
        # corresponding to the query, offers full pagination, doesn't include
        # the number of matches per material.
        elif mode == "collapse":
            s = Search(index=config.elastic.index_name)
            s = s.query(bool_query)
            s = s.extra(**{
                "collapse": {"field": "encyclopedia.material.material_id"},
                "size": per_page,
                "from": (page - 1) * per_page,
            })

            # Execute query
            response = s.execute()

            # No matches
            if len(response) == 0:
                abort(404, message='No materials found for the given search criteria or pagination.')

            # Loop over materials
            result_list = []
            for material in response:
                mat_result = get_material(material)
                result_list.append(mat_result)

            # Full page information available for collapse
            pages = {
                "page": page,
                "per_page": per_page,
                "pages": math.ceil(response.hits.total / per_page),
                "total": response.hits.total,
            }
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        result = {
            "results": result_list,
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            "total_results": len(result_list),
            "es_query": s.to_dict(),
            "pages": pages,
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        }
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        return result, 200