metainfo.py 100 KB
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# Copyright 2018 Markus Scheidgen
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an"AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
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from typing import Type, TypeVar, Union, Tuple, Iterable, List, Any, Dict, Set, \
    Callable as TypingCallable, cast
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from collections.abc import Iterable as IterableABC, Sequence
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import sys
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import inspect
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import re
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import json
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import itertools
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import numpy as np
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import pint
import pint.unit
import pint.quantity
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import aniso8601
from datetime import datetime
import pytz
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import docstring_parser
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import jmespath
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from nomad.units import ureg

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m_package: 'Package' = None

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is_bootstrapping = True
MSectionBound = TypeVar('MSectionBound', bound='MSection')
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T = TypeVar('T')
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# Make pylint believe all bootstrap quantities are actual properties even though
# we have to initialize them to None due to bootstrapping
_placeholder_quantity: 'Quantity' = property()  # type: ignore
if True:
    _placeholder_quantity: 'Quantity' = None  # type: ignore

_primitive_types = {str: str, int: int, float: float, bool: bool}

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# Metainfo errors

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class MetainfoError(Exception):
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    ''' Metainfo related errors. '''
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    pass


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class DeriveError(MetainfoError):
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    ''' An error occurred while computing a derived value. '''
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    pass


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class MetainfoReferenceError(MetainfoError):
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    ''' An error indicating that a reference could not be resolved. '''
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    pass
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# Metainfo quantity data types
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class MEnum(Sequence):
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    '''Allows to define str types with values limited to a pre-set list of possible values.'''
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    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        # Supports one big list in place of args
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        if len(args) == 1 and isinstance(args[0], list):
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            args = args[0]
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        # If non-named arguments are given, the default is to have them placed
        # into a dictionary with their string value as both the enum name and
        # the value.
        for arg in args:
            if arg in kwargs:
                raise ValueError("Duplicate value '{}' provided for enum".format(arg))
            kwargs[arg] = arg

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        self._list = list(kwargs.values())
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        self._values = set(kwargs.values())  # For allowing constant time member check
        self._map = kwargs

    def __getattr__(self, attr):
        return self._map[attr]
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    def __getitem__(self, index):
        return self._list[index]

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self._list)

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class MProxy():
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    ''' A placeholder object that acts as reference to a value that is not yet resolved.
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    Attributes:
        url: The reference represented as an URL string.
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    '''
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    def __init__(
            self, m_proxy_url: str, m_proxy_section: 'MSection' = None,
            m_proxy_quantity: 'Quantity' = None):
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        self.m_proxy_url = m_proxy_url
        self.m_proxy_section = m_proxy_section
        self.m_proxy_resolved = None
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        self.m_proxy_quantity = m_proxy_quantity
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    def m_proxy_resolve(self):
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        if self.m_proxy_section and self.m_proxy_quantity and not self.m_proxy_resolved:
            self.m_proxy_resolved = self.m_proxy_quantity.type.resolve(self)
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        if self.m_proxy_resolved is not None and isinstance(self, MProxy):
            setattr(self, '__class__', self.m_proxy_resolved.__class__)
            self.__dict__.update(**self.m_proxy_resolved.__dict__)

        return self.m_proxy_resolved

    def __getattr__(self, key):
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        if self.m_proxy_resolve() is not None:
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            return getattr(self.m_proxy_resolved, key)

        raise ReferenceError('could not resolve %s' % self.m_proxy_url)
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class SectionProxy(MProxy):
    def m_proxy_resolve(self):
        if self.m_proxy_section and not self.m_proxy_resolved:
            root = self.m_proxy_section
            while root is not None and not isinstance(root, Package):
                root = root.m_parent

            if isinstance(root, Package):
                self.m_proxy_resolved = root.all_definitions.get(self.m_proxy_url)

            if self.m_proxy_resolved is None:
                raise ReferenceError('could not resolve %s' % self.m_proxy_url)
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        return self.m_proxy_resolved
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class DataType:
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    '''
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    Allows to define custom data types that can be used in the meta-info.

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    The metainfo supports the most types out of the box. These includes the python build-in
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    primitive types (int, bool, str, float, ...), references to sections, and enums.
    However, in some occasions you need to add custom data types.
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    This base class lets you customize various aspects of value treatment. This includes
    type checks and various value transformations. This allows to store values in the
    section differently from how the usermight set/get them, and it allows to have non
    serializeable values that are transformed on de-/serialization.
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    '''
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    def set_normalize(self, section: 'MSection', quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:
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        ''' Transforms the given value before it is set and checks its type. '''
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        return value

    def get_normalize(self, section: 'MSection', quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:
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        ''' Transforms the given value when it is get. '''
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        return value

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    def serialize(self, section: 'MSection', quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:
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        ''' Transforms the given value when making the section serializeable. '''
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        return value

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    def deserialize(self, section: 'MSection', quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:
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        ''' Transforms the given value from its serializeable form. '''
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        return value


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range_re = re.compile(r'(\d)\.\.(\d|\*)')


class _Dimension(DataType):

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    def set_normalize(self, section, quantity_def: 'Quantity', value):
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        if isinstance(value, int):
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            return value
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        if isinstance(value, str):
            if value.isidentifier():
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                return value
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            if re.match(range_re, value):
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                return value
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        if isinstance(value, Section):
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            return value
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        if isinstance(value, type) and hasattr(value, 'm_def'):
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            return value
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        if isinstance(value, str):
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            # TODO raise a warning or allow this?
            # In the old metainfo there are cases where an expression is used
            # that is later evaluated in the parser
            return value
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        raise TypeError('%s is not a valid dimension' % str(value))

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    @staticmethod
    def check_dimension(section, dimension, length):
        if isinstance(dimension, int):
            return dimension == length
        if isinstance(dimension, str):
            if dimension.isidentifier():
                return dimension == getattr(section, dimension)
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            m = re.match(range_re, dimension)
            start = int(m.group(1))
            end = -1 if m.group(2) == '*' else int(m.group(2))
            return start <= length and (end == -1 or length <= end)


class _Unit(DataType):
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    def set_normalize(self, section, quantity_def: 'Quantity', value):
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        if isinstance(value, str):
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            value = ureg.parse_units(value)
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        elif not isinstance(value, pint.unit._Unit):
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            raise TypeError('Units must be given as str or pint Unit instances.')

        return value

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    def serialize(self, section, quantity_def: 'Quantity', value):
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        return value.__str__()

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    def deserialize(self, section, quantity_def: 'Quantity', value):
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        return ureg.parse_units(value)
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class _Callable(DataType):
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    def serialize(self, section, quantity_def: 'Quantity', value):
        raise MetainfoError('Callables cannot be serialized')

    def deserialize(self, section, quantity_def: 'Quantity', value):
        raise MetainfoError('Callables cannot be serialized')


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class _QuantityType(DataType):
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    ''' Data type for defining the type of a metainfo quantity.
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    A metainfo quantity type can be one of

    - python build-in primitives: int, float, bool, str
    - numpy dtypes, e.g. f, int32
    - a section definition to define references
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    - an MEnum instance to use it's values as possible str values
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    - a custom datatype, i.e. instance of :class:`DataType`
    - Any
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    '''
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    def set_normalize(self, section, quantity_def, value):
        if value in [str, int, float, bool]:
            return value

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        if isinstance(value, MEnum):
            for enum_value in value._values:
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                if not isinstance(enum_value, str):
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                    raise TypeError('MEnum value %s is not a string.' % enum_value)
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            return value

        if type(value) == np.dtype:
            return value

        if isinstance(value, Section):
            return value

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        if isinstance(value, Reference) and isinstance(value.target_section_def, MProxy):
            proxy = value.target_section_def
            proxy.m_proxy_section = section
            proxy.m_proxy_quantity = quantity_def
            return value

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        if isinstance(value, DataType):
            return value

        if value == Any:
            return value

        if isinstance(value, type):
            section = getattr(value, 'm_def', None)
            if section is not None:
                return Reference(section)

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        if isinstance(value, MProxy):
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            value.m_proxy_section = section
            value.m_proxy_quantity = quantity_def
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            return value

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        raise MetainfoError(
            'Type %s of %s is not a valid metainfo quantity type' %
            (value, quantity_def))

    def serialize(self, section, quantity_def, value):
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        if value is str or value is int or value is float or value is bool:
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            return dict(type_kind='python', type_data=value.__name__)

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        if isinstance(value, MEnum):
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            return dict(type_kind='Enum', type_data=list(value))

        if type(value) == np.dtype:
            return dict(type_kind='numpy', type_data=str(value))

        if isinstance(value, Reference):
            return dict(type_kind='reference', type_data=value.target_section_def.m_path())

        if isinstance(value, DataType):
            module = value.__class__.__module__
            if module is None or module == str.__class__.__module__:
                type_data = value.__class__.__name__
            else:
                type_data = '%s.%s' % (module, value.__class__.__name__)

            return dict(type_kind='custom', type_data=type_data)

        if value == Any:
            return dict(type_kind='Any')

        raise MetainfoError(
            'Type %s of %s is not a valid metainfo quantity type' %
            (value, quantity_def))


class Reference(DataType):
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    ''' Datatype used for reference quantities. '''
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    def __init__(self, section_def: Union['Section', 'SectionProxy']):
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        self.target_section_def = section_def

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    def resolve(self, proxy) -> 'MSection':
        '''
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        Resolve the given proxy. The proxy is guaranteed to have a context and
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        will to be not yet resolved.
        '''
        return proxy.m_proxy_section.m_resolve(proxy.m_proxy_url)

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    def set_normalize(self, section: 'MSection', quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:
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        if isinstance(self.target_section_def, MProxy):
            proxy = self.target_section_def
            proxy.m_proxy_section = section
            proxy.m_proxy_quantity = quantity_def
            self.target_section_def = proxy.m_proxy_resolve()

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        if self.target_section_def.m_follows(Definition.m_def):
            # special case used in metainfo definitions, where we reference metainfo definitions
            # using their Python class. E.g. referencing a section definition using its
            # class instead of the object: Run vs. Run.m_def
            if isinstance(value, type):
                definition = getattr(value, 'm_def', None)
                if definition is not None and definition.m_follows(self.target_section_def):
                    return definition

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        if isinstance(value, str):
            return MProxy(value, m_proxy_section=section, m_proxy_quantity=quantity_def)

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        if isinstance(value, MProxy):
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            value.m_proxy_section = section
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            value.m_proxy_quantity = quantity_def
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            return value

        if not isinstance(value, MSection):
            raise TypeError(
                'The value %s is not a section and can not be used as a reference.' % value)

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        if not value.m_follows(self.target_section_def):  # type: ignore
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            raise TypeError(
                '%s is not a %s and therefore an invalid value of %s.' %
                (value, self.target_section_def, quantity_def))

        return value

    def serialize(self, section: 'MSection', quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:
        return value.m_path()

    def deserialize(self, section: 'MSection', quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:
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        return MProxy(value, m_proxy_section=section, m_proxy_quantity=quantity_def)
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class _Datetime(DataType):
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    def _parse(self, datetime_str: str) -> datetime:
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        try:
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            return aniso8601.parse_datetime(datetime_str)
        except ValueError:
            pass
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        try:
            return aniso8601.parse_date(datetime_str)
        except ValueError:
            pass

        try:
            # TODO necessary?
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            import flask_restplus.inputs
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            return flask_restplus.inputs.datetime_from_rfc822(datetime_str)
        except ValueError:
            pass

        raise TypeError('Invalid date literal "{0}"'.format(datetime_str))

    def _convert(self, value):
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        if value is None:
            return None
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        if isinstance(value, str):
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            value = self._parse(value)

        elif isinstance(value, (int, float)):
            value = datetime.fromtimestamp(value)
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        elif isinstance(value, pint.Quantity):
            value = datetime.fromtimestamp(value.magnitude)
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        if not isinstance(value, datetime):
            raise TypeError('%s is not a datetime.' % value)

        return value

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    def set_normalize(self, section: 'MSection', quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:
        return self._convert(value)

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    def serialize(self, section: 'MSection', quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:
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        if value is None:
            return None

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        value.replace(tzinfo=pytz.utc)
        return value.isoformat()

    def deserialize(self, section: 'MSection', quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:
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        return self._convert(value)
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Dimension = _Dimension()
Unit = _Unit()
QuantityType = _QuantityType()
Callable = _Callable()
Datetime = _Datetime()
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# Metainfo data storage and reflection interface

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class MObjectMeta(type):
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    def __new__(self, cls_name, bases, dct):
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        do_init = dct.get('do_init', None)
        if do_init is not None:
            del(dct['do_init'])
        else:
            do_init = True

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        cls = super().__new__(self, cls_name, bases, dct)
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        init = getattr(cls, '__init_cls__')
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        if init is not None and do_init and not is_bootstrapping:
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            init()
        return cls
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SectionDef = Union[str, 'Section', 'SubSection', Type[MSectionBound]]
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''' Type for section definition references.
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This can either be :

- the name of the section
- the section definition itself
- the definition of a sub section
- or the section definition Python class
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'''
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def constraint(warning):
    ''' A decorator for methods implementing constraints. '''
    f = None
    if not isinstance(warning, bool):
        f = warning
        warning = False
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    def decorator(f):
        setattr(f, 'm_constraint', True)
        setattr(f, 'm_warning', warning)
        return f
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    if f is None:
        return decorator
    else:
        return decorator(f)
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class MResource():
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    '''
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    Represents a collection of related metainfo data, i.e. a set of :class:`MSection` instances.
    '''
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    def __init__(self, logger=None):
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        self.__data: Dict['Section', List['MSection']] = dict()
        self.contents: List['MSection'] = []
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        self.logger = logger
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    def create(self, section_cls: Type[MSectionBound], *args, **kwargs) -> MSectionBound:
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        '''
        Create an instance of the given section class and adds it to this resource as
        a root section. The m_parent_index will be set sequentially among root sections of
        the same section definition starting with 0.
        '''
        index = 0
        for content in self.contents:
            if content.m_follows(section_cls.m_def):
                index = max(index, content.m_parent_index + 1)

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        result = section_cls(*args, **kwargs)
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        result.m_parent_index = index

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        self.add(result)
        return cast(MSectionBound, result)

    def add(self, section):
        section.m_resource = self
        self.__data.setdefault(section.m_def, []).append(section)
        if section.m_parent is None:
            self.contents.append(section)

    def remove(self, section):
        assert section.m_resource == self, 'Can only remove section from the resource that contains it.'
        section.m_resource = None
        self.__data.get(section.m_def).remove(section)
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        if section.m_parent is None:
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            self.contents.remove(section)

    def all(self, section_cls: Type[MSectionBound]) -> List[MSectionBound]:
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        ''' Returns all instances of the given section class in this resource. '''
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        return cast(List[MSectionBound], self.__data.get(section_cls.m_def, []))

    def unload(self):
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        ''' Breaks all references among the contain metainfo sections to allow GC. '''
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        for collections in self.__data.values():
            for section in collections:
                section.m_parent = None
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                section.__dict__.clear()
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            collections.clear()

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    def m_to_dict(self, filter: TypingCallable[['MSection'], bool] = None):
        if filter is None:
            def filter(_):  # pylint: disable=function-redefined
                return True
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        return {
            section.m_def.name: section.m_to_dict()
            for section in self.contents
            if filter(section)}
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    def warning(self, *args, **kwargs):
        if self.logger is not None:
            self.logger.warn(*args, **kwargs)

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class MSection(metaclass=MObjectMeta):  # TODO find a way to make this a subclass of collections.abs.Mapping
    '''Base class for all section instances on all meta-info levels.
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    All `section instances` indirectly instantiate the :class:`MSection` and therefore all
    members of :class:`MSection` are available on all `section instances`. :class:`MSection`
    provides many special attributes and functions (they all start with ``m_``) that allow
    to reflect on a `section's definition` and allow to manipulate the `section instance`
    without a priori knowledge of the `section defintion`.
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    It also carries all the data for each section. All sub-classes only define specific
    sections in terms of possible sub-sections and quantities. The data is managed here.

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    Attributes:
        m_def: The `section definition` that this `section instance` follows as a
            :class:`Section` object.
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        m_parent:
            If this section is a sub-section, this references the parent section instance.
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        m_parent_sub_section:
            If this section is a sub-section, this is the :class:`SubSection` that defines
            this relationship.
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        m_parent_index:
            For repeatable sections, parent keep a list of sub-sections. This is the index
            of this section in the respective parent sub-section list.

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        m_resource: The :class:`MResource` that contains and manages this section.

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    '''
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    m_def: 'Section' = None
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    def __init__(
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            self, m_def: 'Section' = None, m_resource: MResource = None, **kwargs):
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        self.m_def: 'Section' = m_def
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        self.m_parent: 'MSection' = None
        self.m_parent_sub_section: 'SubSection' = None
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        self.m_parent_index = -1
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        self.m_resource = m_resource
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        self.m_mod_count = 0
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        self.m_cache: dict = {}  # Dictionary for caching temporary values that are not persisted to the Archive
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        # get missing m_def from class
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        cls = self.__class__
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        if self.m_def is None:
            self.m_def = cls.m_def
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        # check m_def
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        if cls.m_def is not None:
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            if self.m_def != cls.m_def:
                MetainfoError('Section class and section definition must match.')

            if self.m_def.extends_base_section:
                MetainfoError('Section extends another section and cannot be instantiated.')

        else:
            if not is_bootstrapping:
                MetainfoError('Section has not m_def.')
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        # get annotations from kwargs
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        self.m_annotations: Dict[str, Any] = {}
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        other_kwargs = {}
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        for key, value in kwargs.items():
            if key.startswith('a_'):
                self.m_annotations[key[2:]] = value
            else:
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                other_kwargs[key] = value
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        # get additional annotations from the section definition
        if not is_bootstrapping:
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            for section_annotation in self.m_def.m_get_annotations(SectionAnnotation, as_list=True):
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                for name, annotation in section_annotation.new(self).items():
                    self.m_annotations[name] = annotation

        # add annotation attributes for names annotations
        for annotation_name, annotation in self.m_annotations.items():
            setattr(self, 'a_%s' % annotation_name, annotation)
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        # set remaining kwargs
        if is_bootstrapping:
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            self.__dict__.update(**other_kwargs)  # type: ignore
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        else:
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            self.m_update(**other_kwargs)
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    @classmethod
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    def __init_cls__(cls):
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        # ensure that the m_def is defined
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        m_def = cls.__dict__.get('m_def')  # do not accedentally get the m_def from a potential base section
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        if m_def is None:
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            m_def = Section()
            setattr(cls, 'm_def', m_def)
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        # Use class name if name is not explicitly defined
        if m_def.name is None:
            m_def.name = cls.__name__
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        m_def._section_cls = cls
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        # add base sections
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        base_sections: List[Section] = []
        for base_cls in cls.__bases__:
            if base_cls != MSection:
                base_section = getattr(base_cls, 'm_def')
                if base_section is None:
                    raise TypeError(
                        'Section defining classes must have MSection or a decendant as '
                        'base classes.')
                base_sections.append(base_section)
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        m_def.m_set(Section.base_sections, base_sections)
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        # transfer names, descriptions, constraints, event_handlers
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        constraints: Set[str] = set()
        event_handlers: Set[Callable] = set(m_def.event_handlers)
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        for name, attr in cls.__dict__.items():
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            # transfer names and descriptions for properties, init properties
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            if isinstance(attr, Property):
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                attr.name = name
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                if attr.description is not None:
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                    attr.description = inspect.cleandoc(attr.description).strip()
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                    attr.__doc__ = attr.description
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                if isinstance(attr, Quantity):
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                    m_def.m_add_sub_section(Section.quantities, attr)
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                elif isinstance(attr, SubSection):
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                    m_def.m_add_sub_section(Section.sub_sections, attr)
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                else:
                    raise NotImplementedError('Unknown property kind.')
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            if inspect.isfunction(attr):
                method_name = attr.__name__

                # transfer constraints
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                if getattr(attr, 'm_constraint', False):
                    constraint = method_name
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                    constraints.add(constraint)

                # register event_handlers from event_handler methods
                if method_name.startswith('on_set') or method_name.startswith('on_add_sub_section'):
                    if attr not in event_handlers:
                        event_handlers.add(attr)

        # add handler and constraints from base sections
        for base_section in m_def.all_base_sections:
            for constraint in base_section.constraints:
                constraints.add(constraint)
            for event_handler in base_section.event_handlers:
                event_handlers.add(event_handler)
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        m_def.constraints = list(constraints)
        m_def.event_handlers = list(event_handlers)
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        # add section cls' section to the module's package
        module_name = cls.__module__
        pkg = Package.from_module(module_name)
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        pkg.m_add_sub_section(Package.section_definitions, cls.m_def)
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        # apply_google_docstrings
        # Parses the google doc string of the given class and properly updates the
        # definition descriptions.

        # This allows to document quantities and sub-sections with 'Args:' in the section
        # class. It will remove the 'Args' section from the section definition and will
        # set the respective pieces to the quantity and sub-section descriptions.
        docstring = cls.__doc__
        if docstring is not None:
            parsed_docstring = docstring_parser.parse(docstring)
            short = parsed_docstring.short_description
            dsc = parsed_docstring.long_description

            if short and dsc:
                description = '%s %s' % (short.strip(), dsc.strip())
            elif short:
                description = short.strip()
            elif dsc:
                description = dsc.strip()
            else:
                description = None

            if m_def.description is None:
                m_def.description = description

            for param in parsed_docstring.params:
                prop = m_def.all_properties.get(param.arg_name)
                if prop is not None:
                    if prop.description is None:
                        prop.description = param.description

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        for content in m_def.m_all_contents(depth_first=True, include_self=True):
            cast(Definition, content).__init_metainfo__()
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    def __getattr__(self, name):
        # This will make mypy and pylint ignore 'missing' dynamic attributes and functions
        # and wrong types of those.
        # Ideally we have a plugin for both that add the corrent type info
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        raise AttributeError(name)
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    def __check_np(self, quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: np.ndarray) -> np.ndarray:
        # TODO this feels expensive, first check, then possible convert very often?
        # if quantity_ref.type != value.dtype:
        #     raise MetainfoError(
        #         'Quantity dtype %s and value dtype %s do not match.' %
        #         (quantity_ref.type, value.dtype))

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        return value

    def __set_normalize(self, quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> Any:

        if isinstance(quantity_def.type, DataType):
            return quantity_def.type.set_normalize(self, quantity_def, value)

        elif isinstance(quantity_def.type, Section):
            if isinstance(value, MProxy):
                return value

            if not isinstance(value, MSection):
                raise TypeError(
                    'The value %s for reference quantity %s is not a section instance.' %
                    (value, quantity_def))

            if not value.m_follows(quantity_def.type):
                raise TypeError(
                    'The value %s for quantity %s does not follow %s' %
                    (value, quantity_def, quantity_def.type))

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        elif isinstance(quantity_def.type, MEnum):
            if value not in quantity_def.type._values:
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                raise TypeError(
                    'The value %s is not an enum value for quantity %s.' %
                    (value, quantity_def))

        elif quantity_def.type == Any:
            pass

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        elif quantity_def.type == str and type(value) == np.str_:
            return str(value)

        elif quantity_def.type == bool and type(value) == np.bool_:
            return bool(value)

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        else:
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            if value is not None and type(value) != quantity_def.type:
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                raise TypeError(
                    'The value %s with type %s for quantity %s is not of type %s' %
                    (value, type(value), quantity_def, quantity_def.type))

        return value

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    def __resolve_synonym(self, quantity_def: 'Quantity') -> 'Quantity':
        if quantity_def.synonym_for is not None:
            return self.m_def.all_quantities[quantity_def.synonym_for]
        return quantity_def
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    def __to_np(self, quantity_def: 'Quantity', value):
        if isinstance(value, pint.quantity._Quantity):
            if quantity_def.unit is None:
                raise MetainfoError(
                    'The quantity %s has not a unit, but value %s has.' %
                    (quantity_def, value))
            value = value.to(quantity_def.unit).magnitude

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        if len(quantity_def.shape) > 0 and type(value) != np.ndarray:
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            try:
                value = np.asarray(value)
            except TypeError:
                raise TypeError(
                    'Could not convert value %s of %s to a numpy array' %
                    (value, quantity_def))
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        elif type(value) != quantity_def.type.type:
            try:
                value = quantity_def.type.type(value)
            except TypeError:
                raise TypeError(
                    'Could not convert value %s of %s to a numpy scalar' %
                    (value, quantity_def))
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        return self.__check_np(quantity_def, value)

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    def m_set(self, quantity_def: 'Quantity', value: Any) -> None:
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        ''' Set the given value for the given quantity. '''
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        self.m_mod_count += 1
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        quantity_def = self.__resolve_synonym(quantity_def)
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        if quantity_def.derived is not None:
            raise MetainfoError('The quantity %s is derived and cannot be set.' % quantity_def)
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        if type(quantity_def.type) == np.dtype:
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            value = self.__to_np(quantity_def, value)
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        else:
            dimensions = len(quantity_def.shape)
            if dimensions == 0:
                value = self.__set_normalize(quantity_def, value)

            elif dimensions == 1:
                if type(value) == str or not isinstance(value, IterableABC):
                    raise TypeError(
                        'The shape of %s requires an iterable value, but %s is not iterable.' %
                        (quantity_def, value))

                value = list(self.__set_normalize(quantity_def, item) for item in value)

            else:
                raise MetainfoError(
                    'Only numpy arrays and dtypes can be used for higher dimensional '
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                    'quantities: %s' % quantity_def)
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        self.__dict__[quantity_def.name] = value
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        for handler in self.m_def.event_handlers:
            if handler.__name__.startswith('on_set'):
                handler(self, quantity_def, value)

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    def m_get(self, quantity_def: 'Quantity') -> Any:
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        ''' Retrieve the given value for the given quantity. '''
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        return quantity_def.__get__(self, Quantity)
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    def m_is_set(self, quantity_def: 'Quantity') -> bool:
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        ''' True if the given quantity is set. '''
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        quantity_def = self.__resolve_synonym(quantity_def)
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        if quantity_def.derived is not None:
            return True

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        return quantity_def.name in self.__dict__
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    def m_add_values(self, quantity_def: 'Quantity', values: Any, offset: int) -> None:
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        ''' Add (partial) values for the given quantity of higher dimensionality. '''
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        # TODO
        raise NotImplementedError()
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    def m_add_sub_section(self, sub_section_def: 'SubSection', sub_section: 'MSection') -> None:
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        ''' Adds the given section instance as a sub section of the given sub section definition. '''
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        self.m_mod_count += 1
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        parent_index = -1
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        if sub_section_def.repeats:
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            parent_index = self.m_sub_section_count(sub_section_def)
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        else:
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            old_sub_section = self.__dict__.get(sub_section_def.name)
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            if old_sub_section is not None:
                old_sub_section.m_parent = None
                old_sub_section.m_parent_sub_section = None
                old_sub_section.m_parent_index = -1
                if self.m_resource is not None:
                    self.m_resource.remove(sub_section)

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        sub_section.m_parent = self
        sub_section.m_parent_sub_section = sub_section_def
        sub_section.m_parent_index = parent_index
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        if sub_section.m_resource is not None:
            sub_section.m_resource.remove(sub_section)
        if self.m_resource is not None:
            self.m_resource.add(sub_section)
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        sub_section_name = sub_section_def.name
        if sub_section_def.repeats:
            sub_section_lst = self.__dict__.get(sub_section_name)
            if sub_section_lst is None:
                sub_section_lst = self.__dict__.setdefault(sub_section_name, [])

            sub_section_lst.append(sub_section)

        else:
            self.__dict__[sub_section_name] = sub_section
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        for handler in self.m_def.event_handlers:
            if handler.__name__.startswith('on_add_sub_section'):
                handler(self, sub_section_def, sub_section)

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    def m_remove_sub_section(self, sub_section_def: 'SubSection', index: int) -> None:
        ''' Removes the exiting section for a non repeatable sub section '''
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        if sub_section_def.repeats:
            del(self.__dict__[sub_section_def.name][index])

        elif sub_section_def.name in self.__dict__:
            del(self.__dict__[sub_section_def.name])
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    def m_get_sub_section(self, sub_section_def: 'SubSection', index: int) -> 'MSection':
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        ''' Retrieves a single sub section of the given sub section definition. '''
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        if sub_section_def.repeats:
            return self.__dict__[sub_section_def.name][index]
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        else:
            return self.__dict__.get(sub_section_def.name, None)
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    def m_get_sub_sections(self, sub_section_def: 'SubSection') -> List['MSection']:
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        ''' Retrieves  all sub sections of the given sub section definition. '''
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        try:
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            if sub_section_def.repeats:
                return self.__dict__[sub_section_def.name]
            else:
                return [self.__dict__[sub_section_def.name]]
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        except KeyError:
            return []
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    def m_sub_section_count(self, sub_section_def: 'SubSection') -> int:
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        ''' Returns the number of sub sections for the given sub section definition. '''
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        try:
            value = self.__dict__[sub_section_def.name]
            if sub_section_def.repeats:
                return len(value)
            else:
                return 1
        except KeyError:
            return 0
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    def m_create(
            self, section_cls: Type[MSectionBound], sub_section_def: 'SubSection' = None,
            **kwargs) -> MSectionBound:
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        ''' Creates a section instance and adds it to this section provided there is a
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        corresponding sub section.
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        Args:
            section_cls: The section class for the sub-secton to create
            sub_section_def: If there are multiple sub-sections for the given class,
                this must be used to explicitely state the sub-section definition.
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        '''
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        section_def = section_cls.m_def
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        sub_section_defs = self.m_def.all_sub_sections_by_section.get(section_def, [])
        n_sub_section_defs = len(sub_section_defs)
        if n_sub_section_defs == 0:
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            raise TypeError('There is no sub section to hold a %s in %s.' % (section_def, self.m_def))
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        if n_sub_section_defs > 1 and sub_section_def is None:
            raise MetainfoError(
                'There are multiple sub section to hold a %s in %s, '
                'but no sub-section was explicitely given.' % (section_def, self.m_def))

        if sub_section_def is not None and sub_section_def not in sub_section_defs:
            raise MetainfoError(
                'The given sub-section class %s does not match the given sub-section '
                'definition %s.' % (section_cls, sub_section_def))

        if sub_section_def is None:
            sub_section_def = sub_section_defs[0]

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        sub_section = section_cls(**kwargs)
        self.m_add_sub_section(sub_section_def, sub_section)
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