Commit 8e516415 authored by Martin Reinecke's avatar Martin Reinecke
Browse files

Merge branch '11-models-multifields-top-level-documentation' into 'NIFTy_5'

Resolve "Add Models and MultiFields to top-level documentation"

Closes #11

See merge request ift/nifty-dev!6
parents 7585873e ed4cc931
......@@ -13,8 +13,10 @@ recognized from a large distance, ignoring all technical details.
From such a perspective,
- IFT problems largely consist of *minimization* problems involving a large
number of equations.
- IFT problems largely consist of the combination of several high dimensional
*minimization* problems.
- Within NIFTy, *models* are used to define the characteristic equations and
properties of the problems.
- The equations are built mostly from the application of *linear operators*,
but there may also be nonlinear functions involved.
- The unknowns in the equations represent either continuous physical *fields*,
......@@ -232,6 +234,62 @@ The properties :attr:`~LinearOperator.adjoint` and
were the original operator's adjoint or inverse, respectively.
Models
======
Model classes (represented by NIFTy5's abstract :class:`Model` class) are used to construct
the equations of a specific inference problem.
Most models are defined via a position, which is a :class:`MultiField` object,
their value at this position, which is again a :class:`MultiField` object and a Jacobian derivative,
which is a :class:`LinearOperator` and is needed for the minimization procedure.
Using the existing basic model classes one can construct more complicated models, as
NIFTy allows for easy and self-consinstent combination via point-wise multiplication,
addition and subtraction. The model resulting from these operations then automatically
contains the correct Jacobians, positions and values.
Notably, :class:`Constant` and :class:`Variable` allow for an easy way to turn
inference of specific quantities on and off.
The basic model classes also allow for more complex operations on models such as
the application of :class:`LinearOperators` or local non-linearities.
As an example one may consider the following combination of ``x``, which is a model of type
:class:`Variable` and ``y``, which is a model of type :class:`Constant`::
z = x*x + y
``z`` will then be a model with the following properties::
z.value = x.value*x.value + y.value
z.position = Union(x.position, y.position)
z.jacobian = 2*makeOp(x.value)
Basic models
------------
Basic model classes provided by NIFTy are
- :class:`Constant` contains a constant value and has a zero valued Jacobian.
Like other models, it has a position, but its value does not depend on it.
- :class:`Variable` returns the position as its value, its derivative is one.
- :class:`LinearModel` applies a :class:`LinearOperator` on the model.
- :class:`LocalModel` applies a non-linearity locally on the model.
- :class:`MultiModel` combines various models into one. In this case the position,
value and Jacobian are combined into corresponding :class:`MultiFields` and operators.
Advanced models
---------------
NIFTy also provides a library of more sophisticated models which are used for more
specific inference problems. Currently these are:
- :class:`AmplitudeModel`, which returns a smooth power spectrum.
- :class:`PointModel`, which models point sources which follow a inverse gamma distribution.
- :class:`SmoothSkyModel`, which models a diffuse lognormal field. It takes an amplitude model
to specify the correlation structure of the field.
.. _minimization:
......
......@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ except ImportError:
from .data_objects.numpy_do import *
__all__ = ["ntask", "rank", "master", "local_shape", "data_object", "full",
"empty", "zeros", "ones", "empty_like", "vdot", "abs", "exp",
"empty", "zeros", "ones", "empty_like", "vdot", "exp",
"log", "tanh", "sqrt", "from_object", "from_random",
"local_data", "ibegin", "ibegin_from_shape", "np_allreduce_sum",
"distaxis", "from_local_data", "from_global_data", "to_global_data",
......
......@@ -24,8 +24,6 @@ from .domain_tuple import DomainTuple
from functools import reduce
from . import dobj
__all__ = ["Field", "sqrt", "exp", "log", "conjugate"]
class Field(object):
""" The discrete representation of a continuous field over multiple spaces.
......
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