elpa2.F90 55.9 KB
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!   This file is part of ELPA.
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!
!    The ELPA library was originally created by the ELPA consortium,
!    consisting of the following organizations:
!
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!    - Max Planck Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF), fomerly known as
!      Rechenzentrum Garching der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (RZG),
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!    - Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Lehrstuhl für angewandte
!      Informatik,
!    - Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Informatik mit
!      Schwerpunkt Wissenschaftliches Rechnen ,
!    - Fritz-Haber-Institut, Berlin, Abt. Theorie,
!    - Max-Plack-Institut für Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaftrn,
!      Leipzig, Abt. Komplexe Strukutren in Biologie und Kognition,
!      and
!    - IBM Deutschland GmbH
!
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!    This particular source code file contains additions, changes and
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!    enhancements authored by Intel Corporation which is not part of
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!    the ELPA consortium.
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!
!    More information can be found here:
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!    http://elpa.mpcdf.mpg.de/
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!
!    ELPA is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
!    it under the terms of the version 3 of the license of the
!    GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free
!    Software Foundation.
!
!    ELPA is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
!    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
!    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
!    GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
!
!    You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
!    along with ELPA.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>
!
!    ELPA reflects a substantial effort on the part of the original
!    ELPA consortium, and we ask you to respect the spirit of the
!    license that we chose: i.e., please contribute any changes you
!    may have back to the original ELPA library distribution, and keep
!    any derivatives of ELPA under the same license that we chose for
!    the original distribution, the GNU Lesser General Public License.
!
!
! ELPA1 -- Faster replacements for ScaLAPACK symmetric eigenvalue routines
!
! Copyright of the original code rests with the authors inside the ELPA
! consortium. The copyright of any additional modifications shall rest
! with their original authors, but shall adhere to the licensing terms
! distributed along with the original code in the file "COPYING".



! ELPA2 -- 2-stage solver for ELPA
!
! Copyright of the original code rests with the authors inside the ELPA
! consortium. The copyright of any additional modifications shall rest
! with their original authors, but shall adhere to the licensing terms
! distributed along with the original code in the file "COPYING".


#include "config-f90.h"
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!> \brief Fortran module which provides the routines to use the two-stage ELPA solver
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module ELPA2

! Version 1.1.2, 2011-02-21

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  use elpa_utilities
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  use elpa1_compute
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  use elpa1, only : elpa_print_times, time_evp_back, time_evp_fwd, time_evp_solve
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  use elpa2_utilities
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  use elpa2_compute
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  use elpa_pdgeqrf

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  use iso_c_binding
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#ifdef WITH_GPU_VERSION
!  use cuda_routines
!  use cuda_c_kernel
!  use iso_c_binding
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#endif
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  use elpa_mpi
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  implicit none

  PRIVATE ! By default, all routines contained are private

  ! The following routines are public:

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  public :: solve_evp_real_2stage_double
  public :: solve_evp_complex_2stage_double

  interface solve_evp_real_2stage
    module procedure solve_evp_real_2stage_double
  end interface

  interface solve_evp_complex_2stage
    module procedure solve_evp_complex_2stage_double
  end interface

#ifdef WANT_SINGLE_PRECISION_REAL
  public :: solve_evp_real_2stage_single
#endif

#ifdef WANT_SINGLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
  public :: solve_evp_complex_2stage_single
#endif

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!******
contains
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!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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!>  \brief solve_evp_real_2stage_double: Fortran function to solve the double-precision real eigenvalue problem with a 2 stage approach
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!>
!>  Parameters
!>
!>  \param na                                   Order of matrix a
!>
!>  \param nev                                  Number of eigenvalues needed
!>
!>  \param a(lda,matrixCols)                    Distributed matrix for which eigenvalues are to be computed.
!>                                              Distribution is like in Scalapack.
!>                                              The full matrix must be set (not only one half like in scalapack).
!>                                              Destroyed on exit (upper and lower half).
!>
!>  \param lda                                  Leading dimension of a
!>
!>  \param ev(na)                               On output: eigenvalues of a, every processor gets the complete set
!>
!>  \param q(ldq,matrixCols)                    On output: Eigenvectors of a
!>                                              Distribution is like in Scalapack.
!>                                              Must be always dimensioned to the full size (corresponding to (na,na))
!>                                              even if only a part of the eigenvalues is needed.
!>
!>  \param ldq                                  Leading dimension of q
!>
!>  \param nblk                                 blocksize of cyclic distribution, must be the same in both directions!
!>
!>  \param matrixCols                           local columns of matrix a and q
!>
!>  \param mpi_comm_rows                        MPI communicator for rows
!>  \param mpi_comm_cols                        MPI communicator for columns
!>  \param mpi_comm_all                         MPI communicator for the total processor set
!>
!>  \param THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API (optional) specify used ELPA2 kernel via API
!>
!>  \param use_qr (optional)                    use QR decomposition
!>
!>  \result success                             logical, false if error occured
!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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#define DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL

#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
  function solve_evp_real_2stage_double(na, nev, a, lda, ev, q, ldq, nblk,        &
                               matrixCols,                               &
                                 mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols,           &
                                 mpi_comm_all, THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API,&
                                 useQR) result(success)
#else
  function solve_evp_real_2stage_single(na, nev, a, lda, ev, q, ldq, nblk,        &
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                               matrixCols,                               &
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                                 mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols,           &
                                 mpi_comm_all, THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API,&
                                 useQR) result(success)
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#endif
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#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
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    use timings
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#endif
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   use precision
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   use cuda_functions
   use mod_check_for_gpu
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   use iso_c_binding
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   implicit none
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   logical, intent(in), optional          :: useQR
   logical                                :: useQRActual, useQREnvironment
   integer(kind=ik), intent(in), optional :: THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL

   integer(kind=ik), intent(in)           :: na, nev, lda, ldq, matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows, &
                                             mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all
   integer(kind=ik), intent(in)           :: nblk
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   real(kind=rk8), intent(inout)           :: a(lda,matrixCols), ev(na), q(ldq,matrixCols)
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   ! was
   ! real a(lda,*), q(ldq,*)
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   real(kind=rk8), allocatable             :: hh_trans_real(:,:)
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   integer(kind=ik)                       :: my_pe, n_pes, my_prow, my_pcol, np_rows, np_cols, mpierr
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: nbw, num_blocks
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   real(kind=rk8), allocatable             :: tmat(:,:,:), e(:)
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   real(kind=c_double)                    :: ttt0, ttt1, ttts  ! MPI_WTIME always needs double
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   integer(kind=ik)                       :: i
   logical                                :: success
   logical, save                          :: firstCall = .true.
   logical                                :: wantDebug
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   integer(kind=ik)                       :: istat
   character(200)                         :: errorMessage
   logical                                :: useGPU
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: numberOfGPUDevices
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#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
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    call timer%start("solve_evp_real_2stage_double")
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#endif
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    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_all,my_pe,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_all,n_pes,mpierr)
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    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_rows,my_prow,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_rows,np_rows,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_cols,my_pcol,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_cols,np_cols,mpierr)
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    wantDebug = .false.
    if (firstCall) then
      ! are debug messages desired?
      wantDebug = debug_messages_via_environment_variable()
      firstCall = .false.
    endif
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    success = .true.
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    useQRActual = .false.
    useGPU      = .false.
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    ! set usage of qr decomposition via API call
    if (present(useQR)) then
      if (useQR) useQRActual = .true.
        if (.not.(useQR)) useQRACtual = .false.
    endif
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    ! overwrite this with environment variable settings
    if (qr_decomposition_via_environment_variable(useQREnvironment)) then
      useQRActual = useQREnvironment
    endif
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    if (useQRActual) then
      if (mod(na,nblk) .ne. 0) then
        if (wantDebug) then
          write(error_unit,*) "solve_evp_real_2stage: QR-decomposition: blocksize does not fit with matrixsize"
        endif
        print *, "Do not use QR-decomposition for this matrix and blocksize."
        success = .false.
        return
      endif
    endif
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    if (present(THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API)) then
      ! user defined kernel via the optional argument in the API call
      THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL = THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API
    else
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      ! if kernel is not choosen via api
      ! check whether set by environment variable
      THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL = get_actual_real_kernel()
    endif
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    ! check whether choosen kernel is allowed
    if (check_allowed_real_kernels(THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL)) then

      if (my_pe == 0) then
        write(error_unit,*) " "
        write(error_unit,*) "The choosen kernel ",REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL)
        write(error_unit,*) "is not in the list of the allowed kernels!"
        write(error_unit,*) " "
        write(error_unit,*) "Allowed kernels are:"
        do i=1,size(REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(:))
          if (AVAILABLE_REAL_ELPA_KERNELS(i) .ne. 0) then
            write(error_unit,*) REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(i)
          endif
        enddo
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        write(error_unit,*) " "
        write(error_unit,*) "The defaul kernel REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC will be used !"
      endif
      THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL = REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC
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    endif

    if (THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL .eq. REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GPU) then
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      if (check_for_gpu(my_pe,numberOfGPUDevices, wantDebug=wantDebug)) then
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        useGPU = .true.
      endif
      if (nblk .ne. 128) then
        print *,"At the moment GPU version needs blocksize 128"
        stop
      endif
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      ! set the neccessary parameters
      cudaMemcpyHostToDevice   = cuda_memcpyHostToDevice()
      cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost   = cuda_memcpyDeviceToHost()
      cudaMemcpyDeviceToDevice = cuda_memcpyDeviceToDevice()
      cudaHostRegisterPortable = cuda_hostRegisterPortable()
      cudaHostRegisterMapped   = cuda_hostRegisterMapped()
    endif
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    ! some temporarilly checks until single precision works with all kernels
#ifndef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
    if ( (THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL .ne. REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC) .or. &
         (THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL .ne. REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC_SIMPLE) .or. &
         (THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL .ne. REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GPU) ) then
       print *,"At the moment single precision only works with the generic kernels"
       stop
     endif
#endif

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    ! Choose bandwidth, must be a multiple of nblk, set to a value >= 32
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    ! On older systems (IBM Bluegene/P, Intel Nehalem) a value of 32 was optimal.
    ! For Intel(R) Xeon(R) E5 v2 and v3, better use 64 instead of 32!
    ! For IBM Bluegene/Q this is not clear at the moment. We have to keep an eye
    ! on this and maybe allow a run-time optimization here
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    if (useGPU) then
      nbw = nblk
    else
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      nbw = (63/nblk+1)*nblk
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    endif
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    num_blocks = (na-1)/nbw + 1
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    allocate(tmat(nbw,nbw,num_blocks), stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_real_2stage: error when allocating tmat "//errorMessage
      stop
    endif
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    ! Reduction full -> band
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    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
    ttts = ttt0
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
    call bandred_real_double(na, a, lda, nblk, nbw, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
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                      tmat, wantDebug, useGPU, success, useQRActual)
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#else
    call bandred_real_single(na, a, lda, nblk, nbw, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
                      tmat, wantDebug, useGPU, success, useQRActual)
#endif
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    if (.not.(success)) return
    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time bandred_real               :',ttt1-ttt0
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     ! Reduction band -> tridiagonal
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     allocate(e(na), stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
     if (istat .ne. 0) then
       print *,"solve_evp_real_2stage: error when allocating e "//errorMessage
       stop
     endif
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     ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
     call tridiag_band_real_double(na, nbw, nblk, a, lda, ev, e, matrixCols, hh_trans_real, &
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                          mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all)
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#else
     call tridiag_band_real_single(na, nbw, nblk, a, lda, ev, e, matrixCols, hh_trans_real, &
                          mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all)
#endif
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     ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
     if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time tridiag_band_real          :',ttt1-ttt0
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#ifdef WITH_MPI
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
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     call mpi_bcast(ev,na,MPI_REAL8,0,mpi_comm_all,mpierr)
     call mpi_bcast(e,na,MPI_REAL8,0,mpi_comm_all,mpierr)
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#else
     call mpi_bcast(ev,na,MPI_REAL4,0,mpi_comm_all,mpierr)
     call mpi_bcast(e,na,MPI_REAL4,0,mpi_comm_all,mpierr)
#endif
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#endif /* WITH_MPI */
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     ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
     time_evp_fwd = ttt1-ttts
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     ! Solve tridiagonal system
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     ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
     call solve_tridi_double(na, nev, ev, e, q, ldq, nblk, matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows,  &
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                      mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, success)
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#else
     call solve_tridi_single(na, nev, ev, e, q, ldq, nblk, matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows,  &
                      mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, success)
#endif
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     if (.not.(success)) return

     ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
     if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
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     write(error_unit,*) 'Time solve_tridi                :',ttt1-ttt0
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     time_evp_solve = ttt1-ttt0
     ttts = ttt1
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     deallocate(e, stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
     if (istat .ne. 0) then
       print *,"solve_evp_real_2stage: error when deallocating e "//errorMessage
       stop
     endif
     ! Backtransform stage 1

     ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
     call trans_ev_tridi_to_band_real_double(na, nev, nblk, nbw, q, ldq, matrixCols, hh_trans_real, &
                                    mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, useGPU, success,      &
                                    THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL)
#else
     call trans_ev_tridi_to_band_real_single(na, nev, nblk, nbw, q, ldq, matrixCols, hh_trans_real, &
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                                    mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, useGPU, success,      &
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                                    THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL)
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#endif
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     if (.not.(success)) return
     ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
     if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time trans_ev_tridi_to_band_real:',ttt1-ttt0
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     ! We can now deallocate the stored householder vectors
     deallocate(hh_trans_real, stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
     if (istat .ne. 0) then
       print *,"solve_evp_real_2stage: error when deallocating hh_trans_real "//errorMessage
       stop
     endif
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     ! Backtransform stage 2
     print *,"useGPU== ",useGPU
     ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
     call trans_ev_band_to_full_real_double(na, nev, nblk, nbw, a, lda, tmat, q, ldq, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, &
                                     mpi_comm_cols, useGPU, useQRActual)
#else
     call trans_ev_band_to_full_real_single(na, nev, nblk, nbw, a, lda, tmat, q, ldq, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, &
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                                     mpi_comm_cols, useGPU, useQRActual)
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#endif
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     ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
     if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time trans_ev_band_to_full_real :',ttt1-ttt0
     time_evp_back = ttt1-ttts

     deallocate(tmat, stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
     if (istat .ne. 0) then
       print *,"solve_evp_real_2stage: error when deallocating tmat"//errorMessage
       stop
     endif
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#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
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     call timer%stop("solve_evp_real_2stage_double")
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#endif
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1    format(a,f10.3)
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
   end function solve_evp_real_2stage_double
#else
   end function solve_evp_real_2stage_single
#endif
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#ifdef WANT_SINGLE_PRECISION_REAL
#undef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
!>  \brief solve_evp_real_2stage_single: Fortran function to solve the single-precision real eigenvalue problem with a 2 stage approach
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!>
!>  Parameters
!>
!>  \param na                                   Order of matrix a
!>
!>  \param nev                                  Number of eigenvalues needed
!>
!>  \param a(lda,matrixCols)                    Distributed matrix for which eigenvalues are to be computed.
!>                                              Distribution is like in Scalapack.
!>                                              The full matrix must be set (not only one half like in scalapack).
!>                                              Destroyed on exit (upper and lower half).
!>
!>  \param lda                                  Leading dimension of a
!>
!>  \param ev(na)                               On output: eigenvalues of a, every processor gets the complete set
!>
!>  \param q(ldq,matrixCols)                    On output: Eigenvectors of a
!>                                              Distribution is like in Scalapack.
!>                                              Must be always dimensioned to the full size (corresponding to (na,na))
!>                                              even if only a part of the eigenvalues is needed.
!>
!>  \param ldq                                  Leading dimension of q
!>
!>  \param nblk                                 blocksize of cyclic distribution, must be the same in both directions!
!>
!>  \param matrixCols                           local columns of matrix a and q
!>
!>  \param mpi_comm_rows                        MPI communicator for rows
!>  \param mpi_comm_cols                        MPI communicator for columns
!>  \param mpi_comm_all                         MPI communicator for the total processor set
!>
!>  \param THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API (optional) specify used ELPA2 kernel via API
!>
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!>  \param use_qr (optional)                    use QR decomposition
!>
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!>  \result success                             logical, false if error occured
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!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
  function solve_evp_real_2stage_double(na, nev, a, lda, ev, q, ldq, nblk,        &
                               matrixCols,                               &
                                 mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols,           &
                                 mpi_comm_all, THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API,&
                                 useQR) result(success)
#else
  function solve_evp_real_2stage_single(na, nev, a, lda, ev, q, ldq, nblk,        &
                               matrixCols,                               &
                                 mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols,           &
                                 mpi_comm_all, THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API,&
                                 useQR) result(success)
#endif
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#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
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    use timings
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#endif
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   use precision
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   use cuda_functions
   use mod_check_for_gpu
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   use iso_c_binding
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   implicit none
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   logical, intent(in), optional          :: useQR
   logical                                :: useQRActual, useQREnvironment
   integer(kind=ik), intent(in), optional :: THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL

   integer(kind=ik), intent(in)           :: na, nev, lda, ldq, matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows, &
                                             mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all
   integer(kind=ik), intent(in)           :: nblk
   real(kind=rk4), intent(inout)           :: a(lda,matrixCols), ev(na), q(ldq,matrixCols)
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   ! was
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   ! real a(lda,*), q(ldq,*)
   real(kind=rk4), allocatable             :: hh_trans_real(:,:)
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   integer(kind=ik)                       :: my_pe, n_pes, my_prow, my_pcol, np_rows, np_cols, mpierr
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: nbw, num_blocks
   real(kind=rk4), allocatable             :: tmat(:,:,:), e(:)
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   real(kind=c_double)                    :: ttt0, ttt1, ttts  ! MPI_WTIME always needs double
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   integer(kind=ik)                       :: i
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   logical                                :: success
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   logical, save                          :: firstCall = .true.
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   logical                                :: wantDebug
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   integer(kind=ik)                       :: istat
   character(200)                         :: errorMessage
   logical                                :: useGPU
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: numberOfGPUDevices
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#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
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    call timer%start("solve_evp_real_2stage_single")
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#endif
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    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_all,my_pe,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_all,n_pes,mpierr)

    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_rows,my_prow,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_rows,np_rows,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_cols,my_pcol,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_cols,np_cols,mpierr)

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    wantDebug = .false.
    if (firstCall) then
      ! are debug messages desired?
      wantDebug = debug_messages_via_environment_variable()
      firstCall = .false.
    endif
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    success = .true.
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    useQRActual = .false.
    useGPU      = .false.

    ! set usage of qr decomposition via API call
    if (present(useQR)) then
      if (useQR) useQRActual = .true.
        if (.not.(useQR)) useQRACtual = .false.
    endif

    ! overwrite this with environment variable settings
    if (qr_decomposition_via_environment_variable(useQREnvironment)) then
      useQRActual = useQREnvironment
    endif

    if (useQRActual) then
      if (mod(na,nblk) .ne. 0) then
        if (wantDebug) then
          write(error_unit,*) "solve_evp_real_2stage: QR-decomposition: blocksize does not fit with matrixsize"
        endif
        print *, "Do not use QR-decomposition for this matrix and blocksize."
        success = .false.
        return
      endif
    endif


    if (present(THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API)) then
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      ! user defined kernel via the optional argument in the API call
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      THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL = THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API
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    else
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      ! if kernel is not choosen via api
      ! check whether set by environment variable
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      THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL = get_actual_real_kernel()
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    endif
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    ! check whether choosen kernel is allowed
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    if (check_allowed_real_kernels(THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL)) then
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      if (my_pe == 0) then
        write(error_unit,*) " "
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        write(error_unit,*) "The choosen kernel ",REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL)
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        write(error_unit,*) "is not in the list of the allowed kernels!"
        write(error_unit,*) " "
        write(error_unit,*) "Allowed kernels are:"
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        do i=1,size(REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(:))
          if (AVAILABLE_REAL_ELPA_KERNELS(i) .ne. 0) then
            write(error_unit,*) REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(i)
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          endif
        enddo
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        write(error_unit,*) " "
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        write(error_unit,*) "The defaul kernel REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC will be used !"
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      endif
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      THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL = REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC

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    endif
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    if (THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL .eq. REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GPU) then
      if (check_for_gpu(my_pe,numberOfGPUDevices, wantDebug=wantDebug)) then
        useGPU = .true.
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      endif
      if (nblk .ne. 128) then
        print *,"At the moment GPU version needs blocksize 128"
        stop
      endif
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    ! some temporarilly checks until single precision works with all kernels
#ifndef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
    if ( (THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL .ne. REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC) .or. &
         (THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL .ne. REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC_SIMPLE) .or. &
         (THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL .ne. REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_GPU) ) then
       print *,"At the moment single precision only works with the generic kernels"
       stop
     endif
#endif
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      ! set the neccessary parameters
      cudaMemcpyHostToDevice   = cuda_memcpyHostToDevice()
      cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost   = cuda_memcpyDeviceToHost()
      cudaMemcpyDeviceToDevice = cuda_memcpyDeviceToDevice()
      cudaHostRegisterPortable = cuda_hostRegisterPortable()
      cudaHostRegisterMapped   = cuda_hostRegisterMapped()
    endif
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    ! Choose bandwidth, must be a multiple of nblk, set to a value >= 32
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    ! On older systems (IBM Bluegene/P, Intel Nehalem) a value of 32 was optimal.
    ! For Intel(R) Xeon(R) E5 v2 and v3, better use 64 instead of 32!
    ! For IBM Bluegene/Q this is not clear at the moment. We have to keep an eye
    ! on this and maybe allow a run-time optimization here
    if (useGPU) then
      nbw = nblk
    else
      nbw = (63/nblk+1)*nblk
    endif
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    num_blocks = (na-1)/nbw + 1

    allocate(tmat(nbw,nbw,num_blocks), stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
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      print *,"solve_evp_real_2stage: error when allocating tmat "//errorMessage
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      stop
    endif
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    ! Reduction full -> band
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    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
    ttts = ttt0
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
    call bandred_real_double(na, a, lda, nblk, nbw, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
                      tmat, wantDebug, useGPU, success, useQRActual)
#else
    call bandred_real_single(na, a, lda, nblk, nbw, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
                      tmat, wantDebug, useGPU, success, useQRActual)
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#endif
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    if (.not.(success)) return
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    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
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       write(error_unit,*) 'Time bandred_real               :',ttt1-ttt0
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     ! Reduction band -> tridiagonal
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     allocate(e(na), stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
     if (istat .ne. 0) then
       print *,"solve_evp_real_2stage: error when allocating e "//errorMessage
       stop
     endif
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     ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
     call tridiag_band_real_double(na, nbw, nblk, a, lda, ev, e, matrixCols, hh_trans_real, &
                          mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all)
#else
     call tridiag_band_real_single(na, nbw, nblk, a, lda, ev, e, matrixCols, hh_trans_real, &
                          mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all)
#endif
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     ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
     if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time tridiag_band_real          :',ttt1-ttt0
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#ifdef WITH_MPI
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
     call mpi_bcast(ev,na,MPI_REAL8,0,mpi_comm_all,mpierr)
     call mpi_bcast(e,na,MPI_REAL8,0,mpi_comm_all,mpierr)
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#else
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     call mpi_bcast(ev,na,MPI_REAL4,0,mpi_comm_all,mpierr)
     call mpi_bcast(e,na,MPI_REAL4,0,mpi_comm_all,mpierr)
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#endif
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#endif /* WITH_MPI */
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     ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
     time_evp_fwd = ttt1-ttts
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     ! Solve tridiagonal system
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     ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
     call solve_tridi_double(na, nev, ev, e, q, ldq, nblk, matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows,  &
                      mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, success)
#else
     call solve_tridi_single(na, nev, ev, e, q, ldq, nblk, matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows,  &
                      mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, success)
#endif
     if (.not.(success)) return
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     ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
     if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
     write(error_unit,*) 'Time solve_tridi                :',ttt1-ttt0
     time_evp_solve = ttt1-ttt0
     ttts = ttt1
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     deallocate(e, stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
     if (istat .ne. 0) then
       print *,"solve_evp_real_2stage: error when deallocating e "//errorMessage
       stop
     endif
     ! Backtransform stage 1
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     ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
     call trans_ev_tridi_to_band_real_double(na, nev, nblk, nbw, q, ldq, matrixCols, hh_trans_real, &
                                    mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, useGPU, success,      &
                                    THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL)
#else
     call trans_ev_tridi_to_band_real_single(na, nev, nblk, nbw, q, ldq, matrixCols, hh_trans_real, &
                                    mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, useGPU, success,      &
                                    THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL)
#endif
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     if (.not.(success)) return
     ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
     if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time trans_ev_tridi_to_band_real:',ttt1-ttt0
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     ! We can now deallocate the stored householder vectors
     deallocate(hh_trans_real, stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
     if (istat .ne. 0) then
       print *,"solve_evp_real_2stage: error when deallocating hh_trans_real "//errorMessage
       stop
     endif


     ! Backtransform stage 2
     print *,"useGPU== ",useGPU
     ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
     call trans_ev_band_to_full_real_double(na, nev, nblk, nbw, a, lda, tmat, q, ldq, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, &
                                     mpi_comm_cols, useGPU, useQRActual)
#else
     call trans_ev_band_to_full_real_single(na, nev, nblk, nbw, a, lda, tmat, q, ldq, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, &
                                     mpi_comm_cols, useGPU, useQRActual)
#endif

     ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
     if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time trans_ev_band_to_full_real :',ttt1-ttt0
     time_evp_back = ttt1-ttts

     deallocate(tmat, stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
     if (istat .ne. 0) then
       print *,"solve_evp_real_2stage: error when deallocating tmat"//errorMessage
       stop
     endif

#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
     call timer%stop("solve_evp_real_2stage_single")
#endif
1    format(a,f10.3)

#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_REAL
   end function solve_evp_real_2stage_double
#else
   end function solve_evp_real_2stage_single
#endif

#endif /* WANT_SINGLE_PRECISION_REAL */

   !>  \brief solve_evp_complex_2stage_double: Fortran function to solve the double-precision complex eigenvalue problem with a 2 stage approach
!>
!>  Parameters
!>
!>  \param na                                   Order of matrix a
!>
!>  \param nev                                  Number of eigenvalues needed
!>
!>  \param a(lda,matrixCols)                    Distributed matrix for which eigenvalues are to be computed.
!>                                              Distribution is like in Scalapack.
!>                                              The full matrix must be set (not only one half like in scalapack).
!>                                              Destroyed on exit (upper and lower half).
!>
!>  \param lda                                  Leading dimension of a
!>
!>  \param ev(na)                               On output: eigenvalues of a, every processor gets the complete set
!>
!>  \param q(ldq,matrixCols)                    On output: Eigenvectors of a
!>                                              Distribution is like in Scalapack.
!>                                              Must be always dimensioned to the full size (corresponding to (na,na))
!>                                              even if only a part of the eigenvalues is needed.
!>
!>  \param ldq                                  Leading dimension of q
!>
!>  \param nblk                                 blocksize of cyclic distribution, must be the same in both directions!
!>
!>  \param matrixCols                           local columns of matrix a and q
!>
!>  \param mpi_comm_rows                        MPI communicator for rows
!>  \param mpi_comm_cols                        MPI communicator for columns
!>  \param mpi_comm_all                         MPI communicator for the total processor set
!>
!>  \param THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API (optional) specify used ELPA2 kernel via API
!>
!>  \result success                             logical, false if error occured
!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#define DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX 1

#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
function solve_evp_complex_2stage_double(na, nev, a, lda, ev, q, ldq, nblk, &
                                  matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols,      &
                                    mpi_comm_all, THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_API) result(success)
#else
function solve_evp_complex_2stage_single(na, nev, a, lda, ev, q, ldq, nblk, &
                                  matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols,      &
                                    mpi_comm_all, THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_API) result(success)
#endif


#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
   use timings
#endif
   use precision
   use cuda_functions
   use mod_check_for_gpu
   use iso_c_binding
   implicit none
   integer(kind=ik), intent(in), optional :: THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_API
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL
   integer(kind=ik), intent(in)           :: na, nev, lda, ldq, nblk, matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all
   complex(kind=ck8), intent(inout)        :: a(lda,matrixCols), q(ldq,matrixCols)
   ! was
   ! complex a(lda,*), q(ldq,*)
   real(kind=rk8), intent(inout)           :: ev(na)
   complex(kind=ck8), allocatable          :: hh_trans_complex(:,:)

   integer(kind=ik)                       :: my_prow, my_pcol, np_rows, np_cols, mpierr, my_pe, n_pes
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: l_cols, l_rows, l_cols_nev, nbw, num_blocks
   complex(kind=ck8), allocatable          :: tmat(:,:,:)
   real(kind=rk8), allocatable             :: q_real(:,:), e(:)
   real(kind=c_double)                    :: ttt0, ttt1, ttts  ! MPI_WTIME always needs double
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: i

   logical                                :: success, wantDebug
   logical, save                          :: firstCall = .true.
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: istat
   character(200)                         :: errorMessage
   logical                                :: useGPU
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: numberOfGPUDevices

#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
    call timer%start("solve_evp_complex_2stage_double")
#endif

    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_all,my_pe,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_all,n_pes,mpierr)

    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_rows,my_prow,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_rows,np_rows,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_cols,my_pcol,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_cols,np_cols,mpierr)

    useGPU = .false.
    wantDebug = .false.
    if (firstCall) then
      ! are debug messages desired?
      wantDebug = debug_messages_via_environment_variable()
      firstCall = .false.
    endif


    success = .true.

    if (present(THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_API)) then
      ! user defined kernel via the optional argument in the API call
      THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL = THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_API
    else
      ! if kernel is not choosen via api
      ! check whether set by environment variable
      THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL = get_actual_complex_kernel()
    endif

    ! check whether choosen kernel is allowed
    if (check_allowed_complex_kernels(THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL)) then

      if (my_pe == 0) then
        write(error_unit,*) " "
        write(error_unit,*) "The choosen kernel ",COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL)
        write(error_unit,*) "is not in the list of the allowed kernels!"
        write(error_unit,*) " "
        write(error_unit,*) "Allowed kernels are:"
        do i=1,size(COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(:))
          if (AVAILABLE_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNELS(i) .ne. 0) then
            write(error_unit,*) COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(i)
          endif
        enddo

        write(error_unit,*) " "
        write(error_unit,*) "The defaul kernel COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC will be used !"
      endif
      THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL = COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC
    endif
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#ifndef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
    if ( (THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL .ne. COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC) .or. &
         (THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL .ne. COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC_SIMPLE) ) then
       print *,"At the moment single precision only works with the generic kernels"
       stop
     endif
#endif
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    if (THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL .eq. COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_GPU) then
      if (check_for_gpu(my_pe, numberOfGPUDevices, wantDebug=wantDebug)) then
        useGPU=.true.
      endif
      if (nblk .ne. 128) then
        print *,"At the moment GPU version needs blocksize 128"
        stop
      endif

      ! set the neccessary parameters
      cudaMemcpyHostToDevice   = cuda_memcpyHostToDevice()
      cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost   = cuda_memcpyDeviceToHost()
      cudaMemcpyDeviceToDevice = cuda_memcpyDeviceToDevice()
      cudaHostRegisterPortable = cuda_hostRegisterPortable()
      cudaHostRegisterMapped   = cuda_hostRegisterMapped()
    endif

    ! Choose bandwidth, must be a multiple of nblk, set to a value >= 32

    nbw = (31/nblk+1)*nblk

    num_blocks = (na-1)/nbw + 1

    allocate(tmat(nbw,nbw,num_blocks), stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_complex_2stage: error when allocating tmat"//errorMessage
      stop
    endif
    ! Reduction full -> band

    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
    ttts = ttt0
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
    call bandred_complex_double(na, a, lda, nblk, nbw, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
                         tmat, wantDebug, useGPU, success)
#else
    call bandred_complex_single(na, a, lda, nblk, nbw, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
                         tmat, wantDebug, useGPU, success)
#endif
    if (.not.(success)) then

#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
      call timer%stop("solve_evp_complex_2stage_double")
#endif
      return
    endif
    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time bandred_complex               :',ttt1-ttt0

    ! Reduction band -> tridiagonal

    allocate(e(na), stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_complex_2stage: error when allocating e"//errorMessage
      stop
    endif


    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
   call tridiag_band_complex_double(na, nbw, nblk, a, lda, ev, e, matrixCols, hh_trans_complex, &
                             mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all)
#else
   call tridiag_band_complex_single(na, nbw, nblk, a, lda, ev, e, matrixCols, hh_trans_complex, &
                             mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all)
#endif

    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time tridiag_band_complex          :',ttt1-ttt0

#ifdef WITH_MPI

#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
    call mpi_bcast(ev, na, mpi_real8, 0, mpi_comm_all, mpierr)
    call mpi_bcast(e, na, mpi_real8, 0, mpi_comm_all, mpierr)
#else
    call mpi_bcast(ev, na, mpi_real4, 0, mpi_comm_all, mpierr)
    call mpi_bcast(e, na, mpi_real4, 0, mpi_comm_all, mpierr)
#endif

#endif /* WITH_MPI */
    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    time_evp_fwd = ttt1-ttts

    l_rows = local_index(na, my_prow, np_rows, nblk, -1) ! Local rows of a and q
    l_cols = local_index(na, my_pcol, np_cols, nblk, -1) ! Local columns of q
    l_cols_nev = local_index(nev, my_pcol, np_cols, nblk, -1) ! Local columns corresponding to nev

    allocate(q_real(l_rows,l_cols), stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_complex_2stage: error when allocating q_real"//errorMessage
      stop
    endif

    ! Solve tridiagonal system

    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
    call solve_tridi_double(na, nev, ev, e, q_real, ubound(q_real,dim=1), nblk, matrixCols, &
                     mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, success)
#else
    call solve_tridi_single(na, nev, ev, e, q_real, ubound(q_real,dim=1), nblk, matrixCols, &
                     mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, success)
#endif
    if (.not.(success)) return

    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times)  &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time solve_tridi                   :',ttt1-ttt0
    time_evp_solve = ttt1-ttt0
    ttts = ttt1

    q(1:l_rows,1:l_cols_nev) = q_real(1:l_rows,1:l_cols_nev)

    deallocate(e, q_real, stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_complex_2stage: error when deallocating e, q_real"//errorMessage
      stop
    endif


    ! Backtransform stage 1

    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
    call trans_ev_tridi_to_band_complex_double(na, nev, nblk, nbw, q, ldq,  &
                                       matrixCols, hh_trans_complex, &
                                       mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
                                       wantDebug, useGPU, success,THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL)
#else
    call trans_ev_tridi_to_band_complex_single(na, nev, nblk, nbw, q, ldq,  &
                                       matrixCols, hh_trans_complex, &
                                       mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
                                       wantDebug, useGPU, success,THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL)
#endif
    if (.not.(success)) return
    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time trans_ev_tridi_to_band_complex:',ttt1-ttt0

    ! We can now deallocate the stored householder vectors
    deallocate(hh_trans_complex, stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_complex_2stage: error when deallocating hh_trans_complex"//errorMessage
      stop
    endif

    ! Backtransform stage 2

    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
   call trans_ev_band_to_full_complex_double(na, nev, nblk, nbw, a, lda, tmat, q, ldq, matrixCols, num_blocks, &
                                      mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, useGPU)
#else
   call trans_ev_band_to_full_complex_single(na, nev, nblk, nbw, a, lda, tmat, q, ldq, matrixCols, num_blocks, &
                                      mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, useGPU)
#endif
    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time trans_ev_band_to_full_complex :',ttt1-ttt0
    time_evp_back = ttt1-ttts

    deallocate(tmat, stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_complex_2stage: error when deallocating tmat "//errorMessage
      stop
    endif

#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
    call timer%stop("solve_evp_complex_2stage_double")
#endif

1   format(a,f10.3)
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
end function solve_evp_complex_2stage_double
#else
end function solve_evp_complex_2stage_single
#endif

#ifdef WANT_SINGLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
#undef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX

!>  \brief solve_evp_complex_2stage_single: Fortran function to solve the single-precision complex eigenvalue problem with a 2 stage approach
!>
!>  Parameters
!>
!>  \param na                                   Order of matrix a
!>
!>  \param nev                                  Number of eigenvalues needed
!>
!>  \param a(lda,matrixCols)                    Distributed matrix for which eigenvalues are to be computed.
!>                                              Distribution is like in Scalapack.
!>                                              The full matrix must be set (not only one half like in scalapack).
!>                                              Destroyed on exit (upper and lower half).
!>
!>  \param lda                                  Leading dimension of a
!>
!>  \param ev(na)                               On output: eigenvalues of a, every processor gets the complete set
!>
!>  \param q(ldq,matrixCols)                    On output: Eigenvectors of a
!>                                              Distribution is like in Scalapack.
!>                                              Must be always dimensioned to the full size (corresponding to (na,na))
!>                                              even if only a part of the eigenvalues is needed.
!>
!>  \param ldq                                  Leading dimension of q
!>
!>  \param nblk                                 blocksize of cyclic distribution, must be the same in both directions!
!>
!>  \param matrixCols                           local columns of matrix a and q
!>
!>  \param mpi_comm_rows                        MPI communicator for rows
!>  \param mpi_comm_cols                        MPI communicator for columns
!>  \param mpi_comm_all                         MPI communicator for the total processor set
!>
!>  \param THIS_REAL_ELPA_KERNEL_API (optional) specify used ELPA2 kernel via API
!>
!>  \result success                             logical, false if error occured
!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
function solve_evp_complex_2stage_double(na, nev, a, lda, ev, q, ldq, nblk, &
                                  matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols,      &
                                    mpi_comm_all, THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_API) result(success)
#else
function solve_evp_complex_2stage_single(na, nev, a, lda, ev, q, ldq, nblk, &
                                  matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols,      &
                                    mpi_comm_all, THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_API) result(success)
#endif


#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
   use timings
#endif
   use precision
   use cuda_functions
   use mod_check_for_gpu
   use iso_c_binding
   implicit none
   integer(kind=ik), intent(in), optional :: THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_API
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL
   integer(kind=ik), intent(in)           :: na, nev, lda, ldq, nblk, matrixCols, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all
   complex(kind=ck4), intent(inout)        :: a(lda,matrixCols), q(ldq,matrixCols)
   ! was
   ! complex a(lda,*), q(ldq,*)
   real(kind=rk4), intent(inout)           :: ev(na)
   complex(kind=ck4), allocatable          :: hh_trans_complex(:,:)

   integer(kind=ik)                       :: my_prow, my_pcol, np_rows, np_cols, mpierr, my_pe, n_pes
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: l_cols, l_rows, l_cols_nev, nbw, num_blocks
   complex(kind=ck4), allocatable          :: tmat(:,:,:)
   real(kind=rk4), allocatable             :: q_real(:,:), e(:)
   real(kind=c_double)                    :: ttt0, ttt1, ttts  ! MPI_WTIME always needs double
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: i

   logical                                :: success, wantDebug
   logical, save                          :: firstCall = .true.
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: istat
   character(200)                         :: errorMessage
   logical                                :: useGPU
   integer(kind=ik)                       :: numberOfGPUDevices

#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
    call timer%start("solve_evp_complex_2stage_single")
#endif

    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_all,my_pe,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_all,n_pes,mpierr)

    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_rows,my_prow,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_rows,np_rows,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_rank(mpi_comm_cols,my_pcol,mpierr)
    call mpi_comm_size(mpi_comm_cols,np_cols,mpierr)

    useGPU = .false.
    wantDebug = .false.
    if (firstCall) then
      ! are debug messages desired?
      wantDebug = debug_messages_via_environment_variable()
      firstCall = .false.
    endif


    success = .true.

    if (present(THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_API)) then
      ! user defined kernel via the optional argument in the API call
      THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL = THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_API
    else
      ! if kernel is not choosen via api
      ! check whether set by environment variable
      THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL = get_actual_complex_kernel()
    endif

    ! check whether choosen kernel is allowed
    if (check_allowed_complex_kernels(THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL)) then

      if (my_pe == 0) then
        write(error_unit,*) " "
        write(error_unit,*) "The choosen kernel ",COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL)
        write(error_unit,*) "is not in the list of the allowed kernels!"
        write(error_unit,*) " "
        write(error_unit,*) "Allowed kernels are:"
        do i=1,size(COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(:))
          if (AVAILABLE_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNELS(i) .ne. 0) then
            write(error_unit,*) COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_NAMES(i)
          endif
        enddo

        write(error_unit,*) " "
        write(error_unit,*) "The defaul kernel COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC will be used !"
      endif
      THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL = COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC
    endif
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#ifndef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
    if ( (THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL .ne. COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC) .or. &
         (THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL .ne. COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_GENERIC_SIMPLE) ) then
       print *,"At the moment single precision only works with the generic kernels"
       stop
     endif
#endif
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    if (THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL .eq. COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL_GPU) then
      if (check_for_gpu(my_pe, numberOfGPUDevices, wantDebug=wantDebug)) then
        useGPU=.true.
      endif
      if (nblk .ne. 128) then
        print *,"At the moment GPU version needs blocksize 128"
        stop
      endif

      ! set the neccessary parameters
      cudaMemcpyHostToDevice   = cuda_memcpyHostToDevice()
      cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost   = cuda_memcpyDeviceToHost()
      cudaMemcpyDeviceToDevice = cuda_memcpyDeviceToDevice()
      cudaHostRegisterPortable = cuda_hostRegisterPortable()
      cudaHostRegisterMapped   = cuda_hostRegisterMapped()
    endif

    ! Choose bandwidth, must be a multiple of nblk, set to a value >= 32

    nbw = (31/nblk+1)*nblk

    num_blocks = (na-1)/nbw + 1

    allocate(tmat(nbw,nbw,num_blocks), stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_complex_2stage: error when allocating tmat"//errorMessage
      stop
    endif
    ! Reduction full -> band

    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
    ttts = ttt0
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
    call bandred_complex_double(na, a, lda, nblk, nbw, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
                         tmat, wantDebug, useGPU, success)
#else
    call bandred_complex_single(na, a, lda, nblk, nbw, matrixCols, num_blocks, mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
                         tmat, wantDebug, useGPU, success)
#endif
    if (.not.(success)) then

#ifdef HAVE_DETAILED_TIMINGS
      call timer%stop("solve_evp_complex_2stage_single")
#endif
      return
    endif
    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time bandred_complex               :',ttt1-ttt0

    ! Reduction band -> tridiagonal

    allocate(e(na), stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_complex_2stage: error when allocating e"//errorMessage
      stop
    endif


    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
   call tridiag_band_complex_double(na, nbw, nblk, a, lda, ev, e, matrixCols, hh_trans_complex, &
                             mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all)
#else
   call tridiag_band_complex_single(na, nbw, nblk, a, lda, ev, e, matrixCols, hh_trans_complex, &
                             mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, mpi_comm_all)
#endif

    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times) &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time tridiag_band_complex          :',ttt1-ttt0

#ifdef WITH_MPI

#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
    call mpi_bcast(ev, na, mpi_real8, 0, mpi_comm_all, mpierr)
    call mpi_bcast(e, na, mpi_real8, 0, mpi_comm_all, mpierr)
#else
    call mpi_bcast(ev, na, mpi_real4, 0, mpi_comm_all, mpierr)
    call mpi_bcast(e, na, mpi_real4, 0, mpi_comm_all, mpierr)
#endif

#endif /* WITH_MPI */
    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    time_evp_fwd = ttt1-ttts

    l_rows = local_index(na, my_prow, np_rows, nblk, -1) ! Local rows of a and q
    l_cols = local_index(na, my_pcol, np_cols, nblk, -1) ! Local columns of q
    l_cols_nev = local_index(nev, my_pcol, np_cols, nblk, -1) ! Local columns corresponding to nev

    allocate(q_real(l_rows,l_cols), stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_complex_2stage: error when allocating q_real"//errorMessage
      stop
    endif

    ! Solve tridiagonal system

    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
    call solve_tridi_double(na, nev, ev, e, q_real, ubound(q_real,dim=1), nblk, matrixCols, &
                     mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, success)
#else
    call solve_tridi_single(na, nev, ev, e, q_real, ubound(q_real,dim=1), nblk, matrixCols, &
                     mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, wantDebug, success)
#endif
    if (.not.(success)) return

    ttt1 = MPI_Wtime()
    if (my_prow==0 .and. my_pcol==0 .and. elpa_print_times)  &
       write(error_unit,*) 'Time solve_tridi                   :',ttt1-ttt0
    time_evp_solve = ttt1-ttt0
    ttts = ttt1

    q(1:l_rows,1:l_cols_nev) = q_real(1:l_rows,1:l_cols_nev)

    deallocate(e, q_real, stat=istat, errmsg=errorMessage)
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    if (istat .ne. 0) then
      print *,"solve_evp_complex_2stage: error when deallocating e, q_real"//errorMessage
      stop
    endif
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    ! Backtransform stage 1
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    ttt0 = MPI_Wtime()
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#ifdef DOUBLE_PRECISION_COMPLEX
    call trans_ev_tridi_to_band_complex_double(na, nev, nblk, nbw, q, ldq,  &
                                       matrixCols, hh_trans_complex, &
                                       mpi_comm_rows, mpi_comm_cols, &
                                       wantDebug, useGPU, success,THIS_COMPLEX_ELPA_KERNEL)
#else
    call trans_ev_tridi_to_band_complex_single(na, nev, nblk, nbw, q, ldq,  &
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